1. The Russian company CJSC "Compomash-TEK" has
developed a new environmentally friendly, energy-efficient, fine-dispersed coal
fuel - ACLF (artificial composite
liquid fuel), unrivaled in the world, with the solid particles size under
1 micron, prepared from brown and black coals, which gives the following
1.1. ACLF can be prepared from different ranks of
brown or black coals and their waste with addition of various combustible
liquids, solid waste and technical water. Such fuel demonstrates all the
technical properties of liquid fuel and retains its qualities in cases of
long-term storage and transportation.
1.2. Fine-dispersed grinding, homogenizing, and mechano-chemical
activation of the prepared coal-water slurry – ACLF, which is produced
on specially designed equipment (Fig. 1), provide for the following:
Fig. 1. Assembled and operational equipment set unit
for preparation and feeding of ACLF
1.2.1. Combustion efficiency of the
combustible portion of ACLF reaches 100%, which eliminates the underfiring
typical of heating stations and thermal power plants and completely removes
CO emissions into the atmosphere.
1.2.2. High reactivity of ACLF at the
time of combustion compared with the traditional coal fuel reduces harmful
emissions into the atmosphere eight tentfold, to values which are lower than the maximum permissible emission
standards set by environmental authorities (dust, soot – to 1 mg/m3;
– to 50 mg/m3; NОх – to 50 mg/m3;
– 0, Table 1).
Actual concentration of harmful agents in exhaust gases in the
course of combustion, mg/n.m3
EES standards adopted in 1995
Manufactured composite liquid fuel
up to 2500
up to 50
up to 1500
no more than 375
up to 300
up to 2500
up to 400
up to 10
up to 50
* - in the course of gas cleaning;
** - gas separators.
Smoke fumes upon combustion of ACLF
have white color, black particles of soot and fly ash typical for coal
heating stations and thermal power plants are absent.
1.3. The new generation crushing and grinding equipment used at coal
heating stations and thermal power plants to prepare ACLF provides for
two- or three-fold reduction of the total electricity consumption as
compared to energy consumption of the existing coal preparation equipment,
which reduces the cost of the produced “green” fuel by 30-50% with further
reduction of the cost price of the produced heat and electric power by
1.4. Burning ACLF enables a 10-15% increase of the
efficiency rating of boiler units.
1.5. The possibility to use any ranks of coal
(black and brown) to prepare ACLF eliminates the existing dependency of
coal heating stations and thermal power plants on specific coal deposits and
ranks of coal.
2. Specially designed burners
(vortex furnace extensions)
with the power capacity
of 6.5, 10, and
1.6. ACLF can be efficiently employed in place of
fuel oil and gas co-fuels as well as a replacement for fuel oil and
natural gas to provide for considerable savings of these resources
at oil-gas boiler units of heating stations and thermal power plants
upon some modification of the facilities. Special burners have
been designed and tested to accommodate this (Fig. 2).
1.7. On the stage of ACLF preparation various
solid and liquid combustible wastes may be added besides coal, including
technical glycerin, a by-product of bio‑diesel fuel production from
vegetable oils (rape) addition of which does not decrease the level
of ecological safety of ACLF.
2. ACLF is a fine-dispersed coal-water slurry
consisting of up to 60% of fine dispersed coal (with the possibility of
adding solid or liquid wastes) and of up to
40% of water. The maximum size of milled coal does not exceed 3 microns.
The average size of coal particles is 0.5-0.8 microns. The lowest
combustion temperature is up to 4000 kcal/kg and more. Viscosity is up
to 800 МPa.
Stability of ACLF reaches 1 year.
In the process of ACLF preparation on
specially designed new generation unit type equipment decarbonization of
coal takes place (see Fig. 1) due to fine-dispersed milling,
mechano-chemical treatment, homogenization of the slurry.
The dispersion medium of ACLF is an active component which acts as an
intermediate oxidant in heterogeneous reactions of the solid and liquid
phases of the fuel at the initial stages of the combustion process with
partial emission of oxygen and hydrogen.
Besides coal and other hydrocarbons (fuel oil,
technical glycerin, peat, etc.) ACLF can include special additives developed
by us, which in small quantities (1 to 3%) provide the desired consumer
qualities of the produced fuel, as well as increase fluidity, stability,
degree of binding of sulfur at the time of fuel combustion. Additives can
also be used to reduce the fuel freezing temperature when transporting or
storing it. Peat, brown coal, and the pulp-and-paper industry wastes can
serve as raw materials for preparation of additives.
The designed equipment sets for preparation of
ACLF can be installed directly in heating stations, thermal power plants, as
well as in centralized “green” coal fuel preparation unit stations.
3. Efficiency of transferring heating
stations and thermal power plants to ACLF (figures taken from the
calculations done by CJSC “Compomash-TEK”).
3.1. In cases coal heating stations and thermal
power plants are transferred to ACLF.
Replacing 1 ton of regular coal with ACLF will
·considerably reduce harmful emissions
into the atmosphere and make the coal heating stations and thermal power
plants operating on the “green” coal fuel environmentally friendly
·save up to USD 20 on small and medium
heating stations with fuel-bed firing, and up to USD 15 on big heating
stations and thermal power plants.
The cost recovery term for the expenditures on
upgrading coal heating stations and thermal power plants can be 2-4 years.
3.2. In cases gas and fuel oil heating stations
and thermal power plants are transferred to ACLF.
Replacing 1 ton of fuel oil or 1000 nm3
of natural gas, taking into account the equal heat-production capacity, with
ACLF will allow to save up to approximately USD 100. The cost recovery term,
starting from the beginning of operation, for the expenditures on setting up
ACLF preparation stations and upgrading the boiler units with the fuel
feeding system will be up to 1-1.5 years.
To transfer to ACLF some upgrade of the oil-gas
boiler units is required, for which we have developed special fuel nozzles
and burner devices with nozzle heads in the form of furnace extensions with
the function of spinning the combustible product and with an autonomous
fly-ash-handling system in place of bottom-ash-handling system (see Fig. 2).
In each particular case of affixment of the ACLF
preparation equipment the efficiency is specified.
3.3. In the light of the above,
large-scale transfer of coal and oil-gas boiler units to “green” ACLF is
appropriate both in economic and environmental terms and will allow to:
·considerably reduce harmful emissions
into the atmosphere, below the set standards, which will help the
·disengage part of the scarce types of
heating station fuels – fuel oil and natural gas;
·save regular coal due to 100%
·reduce the cost price of the electric
and thermal power produced at thermal power plants and heating station by
4. Upon agreement of Clients CJSC “Compomash-TEK”
is ready to: conduct inspection of the selected coal or oil-gas power
production units and the coals used to assess the efficiency of the transfer
and develop business plans; propose a schedule of joint transfer of the
facilities with supply of the necessary main equipment and contract
supervision; carry out engineering setup and put the equipment into
The technology and the equipment are
protected by three Russian patents.
5. Organization of efficient use of
“dirty”, ecological hazardous technical glycerin – by-product in rapeseed
oil processing in bio-diesel fuel production.
Today many nations of the world switch part of
their automobile transport to bio-diesel manufactured of rapeseed oil.
Millions tons of “dirty” technical glycerin formed in this process cannot be
used in an efficient way and its storage is a serious danger for the
environment. Attempts to burn the “dirty” technical glycerin were
accompanied by considerable detrimental emissions exceeding the established
PDK (maximum permissible concentrations).
At the same time, Kompomash-TEK, CJSC has
developed a technology for using the “dirty” glycerin, as a component for
producing a new type of ecologically clean fuel oil – a fine-dispersed
artificial composite liquid coal fuel (IKZHT), adding manufacturing water
and “dirty” glycerin mixture to coal.
The proposed technical solutions include a new
developed formulation for IKZHT, and the developed equipment with complex
impact on suspension components in fuel production process, including
mechanical-chemical, electric-magnetic impacts ensuring the production of
fine-dispersed, stable environmentally sound fuel.
As proved by fire tests, the use of technical
glycerin increases the fuel capacity of produced fuel oil and due to
mechanical-chemical activation, dispersion and homogenization in firing
there is no increase in the minimum formed detrimental emissions level. This
fuel experimental production and firing have brought positive results.
into consideration the physical and chemical properties of concrete coal
type and “dirty” technical glycerin submitted by the Customer, Kompomash-TEK,
CJSC is ready to develop IKZHT preparation formulation, to select special
equipment for fine-dispersed crushing, mechanical-chemical and
electric-magnetic impacts, manufacture and supply, provide supervision and
start-up and adjustment works and putting into operation.
Doctor of Science in Engineering, ProfessorV.A.